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Advisory / Middle School / Refugee by Alan Gratz: The Holocaust

Overview of the Holocaust

For a historical overview of the Holocaust (1933-1945), see these two articles

"Holocaust." Gale In Context Online Collection, Gale, 2019. Gale In Context: Middle School, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/SRWETC568211293/MSIC?u=standy&sid=MSIC&xid=b2a67ab1. Accessed 20 Aug. 2019.

"Holocaust." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 Aug. 2019. school.eb.com/levels/middle/article/Holocaust/274919. Accessed 20 Aug. 2019.

Survivors of WWII Concentration Camp in Dachau, Germany.

The rising danger of the Holocaust prompted many people to flee Nazi-controlled areas. This article from the United States Holocaust Museum Encyclopedia of the Holocaust explains why people fled, where they tried to go and what happened when they arrived. 

What did the United States do during the Holocaust? This virtual exhibit will provide a timeline of the US' reaction to the Holocaust. 

The United States eventually established the War Refugee Board to begin to accept Jewish refugees from the Holocaust. Learn more here

 

To learn more about the real story of the St. Louis and what happened to the passengers, read this article from the United States Holocaust Museum Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. The article includes:

  • details about the Voyage of the St. Louis,
  • a timeline of key events,
  • a video overview, and
  • images from the St. Louis. 

Primary Source News Accounts of the SS St. Louis

Our Historical Newspaper database has several accounts of the SS. St. Louis from 1939. Knowing what we know now, these articles are very painful to read. Dr. Waugh has highlighted an article below which is about the period in which the SS. St. Louis was ordered to leave Cuba with out allowing anyone to leave the ship.

JEWISH REFUGEE LINER ORDERED TO LEAVE CUBA: MUST SAIL OR WARSHIP WILL TAKE IT IN TOW. (1939, Jun 02). Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/175514695?accountid=5492

"German Jews sought to escape persecution in Nazi-controlled Germany by emigrating to other countries during the late 1930s. A worldwide economic depression, coupled with immigration quotas, often meant that Jewish refugees were denied entry to the United States and forced to find asylum in countries like Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Arrival at those countries, however, was no guarantee of asylum. In this picture, a Jewish woman waves frantically to her friends and family as Cuban officials force her to remain a ship in 1939."

 
 
"Jewish Refugees Barred from Entering Cuba." In The Immigrant Experience. American Journey. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999. Gale In Context: Middle School (accessed August 23, 2019). https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/EJ2210007731/MSIC?u=standy&sid=MSIC&xid=347bd32a.

Citations

“Americans and the Holocaust.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, https://exhibitions.ushmm.org/americans-and-the-holocaust/main.

"Holocaust Survivors at Concentration Camp in Dachau, Germany." Gale In Context Online Collection, Gale, 2010. Gale In Context: Middle School, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/PC4295800410/MSIC?u=standy&sid=MSIC&xid=e2ffa6c5. Accessed 20 Aug. 2019.

"Jewish Refugees Barred from Entering Cuba." The Immigrant Experience, Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Gale In Context: Middle School, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/EJ2210007731/MSIC?u=standy&sid=MSIC&xid=347bd32a. Accessed 20 Aug. 2019.

“Refugees.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/refugees.

“Voyage of the St. Louis.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/voyage-of-the-st-louis.

“War Refugee Board: Background and Establishment.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/war-refugee-board-background-and-establishment.